- 10-K pace
- 10-K pace, when used
in a workout to describe how fast to run, is simply the pace of
a runner's last 10-K race.
- K is for kilometers,
1,000 meters. A 5-K is equal to 3.1 miles; 8-K is 4.96 miles;
10-K is equal to 6.2 miles.
- 400 meters
- Equivalent to a quarter
mile or 1 lap around a standard track.
- 800 meters
- Equivalent to a half-mile
or 2 laps around a standard track.
- Used to refer to
running or other exercise at an intensity that's sufficiently
easy for your respiratory and cardiovascular systems to deliver
all or most of the oxygen required by your muscles, and slow enough
that lactic acid doesn't appreciably build up in your muscles.
Generally, you can sustain a slow aerobic pace for long periods
of time, provided you have the endurance to go long distances.
- Used to refer to
running or other exercise at an intensity that makes it impossible
for your respiratory and cardiovascular systems to deliver all
or most of the oxygen required by your muscles, and fast enough
that lactic acid begins to build up in your muscles, thus producing
a tired, heavy feeling. The pace associated with anaerobic running
cannot be sustained very long.
- anaerobic threshold
- The transition phase
between aerobic and anaerobic running. Good training will increase
AT by teaching the muscles to use oxygen more efficiently, so
that less lactic acid is produced. Also known as "lactate
- See "hitting
- chip time
- Finish time, as measured
by a computer chip that's usually worn on the shoe.
- Slow running or jogging
done after a workout or competition to loosen muscles and rid
the body of lactic acid.
- Course record.
- cushioning (or
- The ability of a
shoe to absorb the impact of footstrike.
- Did not finish.
- Did not start.
- Delayed onset muscle
soreness. This type of muscle soreness normally peaks about 48
hours after a particularly intense or long run.
- elite runner
- An athlete who has
reached the highest level in his/her sport.
- Swedish for "speed
play;" variable pace running; a mixture of slow running,
running at a moderate pace and short, fast bursts. Fartlek training
is a "creative way" to increase speed and endurance.
- The dreaded point
(and awful feeling similar to what your body would feel like if
you ran into a wall) during a race when your muscle glycogen stores
become depleted and a feeling of fatigue engulfs you.
- Training in which
short, fast "repeats" or "repetitions" often
200 to 800 meters, are alternated with slow "intervals"
of jogging for recovery; usually based on a rigid format such
as "six times 400 meters fast [these are the repeats] with
400-meter recovery jogs [the intervals]," interval training
builds speed and endurance.
- According to the
IAAF, a junior is any athlete who is under 20 on December 31 of
that year. For example, an athlete whose birthday is November
12, 1979 will be a junior in 1998 but not in 1999.
- junk miles
- Runs at an easy pace
inserted into a program in order to reach a weekly or monthly
mileage total rather than for any specific benefit. Despite the
name, "junk miles" often serve as recovery from harder
workouts. The value of "junk miles" is still hotly debated
among training theorists.
- lactic acid
- A substance which
forms in the muscles as a result of the incomplete breakdown of
glucose. Lactic acid is associated with muscle fatigue and sore
- lactate threshold
- See "anaerobic
- A shaped piece of
wood or metal on which the shoe is built. The shape of the last
determines the shape of the shoe. Shoes are made in three basic
shapes: straight, curved and semi-curved, but all three shapes
vary from company to company as each company has its own lasts.
- Refers to the outer
edge of a shoe.
- LSD is an abbreviation
for "Long, Slow Distance," which refers to the practice
of running longer distances at an "easy" pace rather
than shorter ones to exhaustion. The slower pace allows the runner
to go longer and, therefore (supposedly), gain more fitness.
- 26.2 miles; According
to legend, in 490 B.C., a Greek soldier name Philippides ran the
distance from the site of the battle of Marathon to Athens, where
he died after the Greek victory over the Persians.
- An athlete 40 years
of age or older is designated a "master" in the U.S.
Many other countries use the term "veteran."
- maximum heart
- The highest heart-rate
reached during a specified period of time.
- Referring to the
inner side (or arch side) of a shoe.
- "metric mile"
- 1500m, the international
racing distance closest to the imperial mile.
- The area of the shoe
between the upper and outsole that's primarily responsible for
the shoe's cushioning. Most midsoles are made of foams: either
EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) or polyurethane. EVA is lighter and
more flexible than polyurethane, but it also breaks down more
quickly. Many midsoles also have additional cushioning elements
such as air, gel and various embedded plastic units.
- 1609 meters, 5280
feet, or 1760 yards. Note: 1600m is not a mile.
- motion control
- The ability of a
shoe to limit overpronation.
- negative splits
- Running the second
half of a race faster than the first half.
- National record.
- The material, usually
made of hard carbon rubber, on the bottom of most running shoes;
the layer of the shoe that contacts the ground.
- The excessive inward
roll of the foot before toe-off. Overpronation is believed to
be the cause of many running injuries.
- Accelerations done
during a run, normally done in shorter durations than fartleks.
Pick-ups are simply another way to spice up what would otherwise
be an easy-run day.
- Bounding exercises;
any jumping exercise in which landing followed by a jump occurs.
- post (or medial
- Firmer density of
midsole material added to the inner side of the shoe. A post is
designed to reduce overpronation.
- In the U.S., a high
school athlete. From the term "preparatory school,"
a school for preparing for college. Slightly different from the
IAAF definition of "Junior."
- Pronation begins
immediately after the heel contacts the ground. It is a normal
and necessary motion for walking or running. Pronation is the
distinctive, inward roll of the foot as the arch collapses.
- Personal record/personal
- See "intervals."
- The ability of a
shoe to provide a smooth transfer of a runner's weight from heel-strike
to toe-off. Ride is a largely subjective quality, but shoe wearers
know it when a shoe has or lacks a good ride.
- runner's high
- A feeling, usually
unexpected, of exhilaration and well-being directly associated
with vigorous running; apparently related to the secretion of
- running economy
- Refers to how much
oxygen you use when you run. When you improve your economy, you
are able to run at a smaller percentage of max VO2 (your maximum
rate of oxygen utilization).
- Refers to your times
at mile markers or other pre-planned checkpoints along the way
to the finish line.
- The ability of a
shoe to resist excessive foot motion
- Short, fast, but
controlled runs of 50 to 150 meters. Strides, which are used both
in training and to warm up before a race, build speed and efficiency.
- The opposite of pronation.
It's an outward rolling of the forefoot that naturally occurs
during the stride cycle at toe-off. Oversupination occurs when
the foot remains on its outside edge after heel strike instead
of pronating. A true oversupinating foot underpronates or does
not pronate at all, so it doesn't absorb shock well. It is a rare
condition occurring in less than 1 percent of the running population.
- Runners usually cut
back mileage (or taper) one day to three weeks (depending on race
distance) before a big race. Tapering helps muscles rest so that
they are ready for peak performance on race day.
- target heart rate
- A range of heart
rate reached during aerobic training, which enables an athlete
to gain maximum benefit.
- tempo runs
- Sustained effort
training runs, usually 20 to 30 minutes in length, at 10 to 15
seconds per mile slower than 10-K race pace. Another way to gauge
the pace of tempo runs: a pace about midway between short-interval
training speed and your easy running pace.
- threshold runs
- Runs of 5 to 20 minutes
at a pace just a little slower than your 10-K racing pace; Threshold
pace is roughly equivalent to what exercise physiologists call
"lactate threshold," or the point at which your muscles
start fatiguing at a rapid rate. Running at or near lactate threshold
is believed to raise your lactate threshold, which should allow
you to run faster in the future.
- The front portion
of a shoe's upper. A wide toebox allows plenty of room for the
toes to spread.
- Underpronation is
less common than overpronation. The shoes of underpronators show
outsole wear on the lateral (outer) side not just at the heel
but all the way up to the forefoot. Typically, underpronators
tend to break down the heel counters of their shoes on the lateral
- The leather or mesh
material that encloses the foot.
- International term
similar to "master" in the U.S. According to the IAAF,
men become "veterans" on their 40th birthday; women,
on their 35th birthday.
- VO2Max (maximal
- The maximal amount
of oxygen that a person can extract from the atmosphere and then
transport and use in the body's tissues.
- See "hitting
- Five to twenty minutes
of easy jogging/walking before a race or a workout. The point
of a warm-up is to raise one's heart rate so the body (and its
muscles) are looser before a tough workout begins.
- "world best"
- A recorded best time
for an event in which formal world records are not kept. For instance,
the fastest time at 150m, a non-standard distance, is a "world
best" rather than a "world record." Similar distinctions
are made for road races which do not meet certain standards, such
as races with excessive amounts of downhill.
- World record.